Monthly Archives: August 2020

The Benefit of Correctional Education to Reduce Recidivism in Namibia

Education programmes in Namibia’s correctional facilities are aimed from being incarcerated to re-integration making education in its facilities a big-corner stone for the offenders. Correctional education is a fundamental component to rehabilitative programming offered in confinement facilities around the country.

Staff members must understand the differences between screening and diagnostic testing in order to determine the psychological and educational level of the offender, in order to effectively place offenders according to their learning abilities. These educational programmes are aimed to equip offenders with basic reading and writing skills making them possible to communicate with fellow offenders, officers and stakeholders. The Adult Education programmes in Namibian’s Correctional facilities are aimed at enabling offenders with employment opportunities once they are released. This will therefore build on their self-esteem and enhance proper rehabilitation with the help of psychologists and social workers while they are incarcerated.

The education component during incarceration plays an important role during the rehabilitation process. The Namibian Correctional Service therefore makes tremendous effort to prioritize the education of offenders through means of face – face teaching, vocational training and tertiary learning in order to equip the offenders with knowledge and skills. The role of teachers in this kind of environment is faced with many challenges, for example education might be interrupted in the interest of security. It is apparent that educational staff is faced with the ever-present challenge of finding the right balance between being a correctional officer and educationist at the same time. Teachers must find ways to motivate learners to stay focused despite their present world of confinement that can contribute to limited expectations and motivations of the learners.

Moreover, a correctional education program should strive to focus its curriculum on teaching basic skills within the context of social and decision-making skills for the benefit of the offenders more recently full-time teachers was introduced within the system offering more hours of instruction in order to ensure quality.

The opinion about Correctional facilities to the General public is a place to be scared of but least did they know what kind of activities are presented such as rehabilitation activities, education and vocational training in order for rehabilitation process to take place. Educational programs within confined areas also reduce recidivism meaning offenders not re-offending, particularly because these programs aim to impact the way an individual thinks. Various theories of learning and teaching exist on how to educate students. Although students have individual differences in the way they process information and learn, basic theories explain ways in which student learning can be maximized. The facility offered an innovative educational program that combined academic, social, and vocational aspects with other non-educational factors, such as exercising and outdoor activities. The programs help offenders develop the necessary social skills to avoid crime and addiction once they return to society. Therefore education programs create the fostering of social attitudes and instilling of temperaments that contradict the anti-social norms of confinement life.

As a result, behavioural programs have been created and implemented in order to correct criminal thinking patterns. These programs aim to restructure their thinking ability and to help create positive thinking. On the other hand, education, vocational training, has moderate effects in reducing recidivism and increasing positive behaviour. Vocational programs in correctional facilities are successful due to the fact that they provide a change from confinement routines. They also provide services for offenders after they are released and provide clear opportunities for success in life after release. These opportunities for advancement are a significant incentive for offender’s participation in vocational programs. Correctional literacy programs should address different learning styles, literacy levels, and cultures. They should be centred on the student and adapted to be applicable to confinement culture.

Through education, we begin to learn about ourselves and that is the key to its importance, self-awareness which will in turn break the cycle of recidivism. In addition, the Namibian Correctional facilities provide integrated and applicable vocational and basic academic training. It is of utmost importance that Namibia Correction Services provide correctional education programs that will be successful in the institution, with the aim of successfully re-integrate the offenders to become productive members of society once they are released.

The 5 Myths Encompassing American Public Education Reform

For over 30 years America has been trying to “reform” our Public Educational system. Yet, was it ever broken to begin with? It has in fact functioned well wherever possible despite some missing pieces and occasional mission drift. We can back track this terrific sham to 5 main premises never adequately questioned or disputed. Was it, and is it, fair or in our interests to compare this nation to nations such as China, India, Russia or other European countries academically? And, did we ever fully digest the drastic differences in national values, lifestyles, and overall accomplishments between the U.S. and those nations? We did not.

Since the 1980’s to present and in reaction to the Reagan Administration’s, A Nation at Risk commission on “our failing public education system,” education reformers have fully invested in 5 mythical premises:

1. We are to compare our national educational statistics to that of our international economic competitors

2. We are to align our educational standards to meet the needs of a future global workforce

3. We are to rely heavily on standardized test scores to measure student performance for international comparison

4. We are to blame teacher quality, or lack thereof, for this proposed failure of our national education performance output

5. We are to tinker heavily in the privatization of education throughout the nation

First, as mentioned in previous articles, how could we ever compare nations with different governmental structures, differing values, differing statistical integrity standards, and differing societal/class distinctions, etc.? For example, China is a communist country which imposes national educational standards upon its students, ignoring the uniqueness and intricacies of locales. They do this because they embrace communism and “the state” decides what, which, and where their industries are to be established. Their workforce is selected, tracked, and groomed from the elementary stage into adulthood. The absence of individual choice is trumped by a fierce utilitarian function embedded into their political system. This is not an American value and we have learned of the historical dangers of practicing such ideologies.

We are compared to India with its middleclass growing exponentially along with growth in software engineering, manufacturing, and medical industries. Their results at face value, is impressive. However, we overlook their impasse with issues of gender discrimination, class/caste distinctions, and racial barriers. While the US is no stranger to these issues, and certainly not innocent of them, we have put mechanisms in place to confront them, (though steadily losing their potency). Women are more likely to be educated and valued in the US presently. America still professes to value the combination of individuality and equality. Another historical lesson we have already embraced and implemented through our ideal of providing Public Education.

The globalized workforce affecting our educational priorities is a sketchy assertion at best. Why? Because it relies wholly on political agendas and policy decisions made during each US election cycle. Industry travels wherever corporate taxes are lowest and to where labor is cheapest. Since economic policy changes can be made within a single election cycle, does this mean we are to change our educational priorities along with time each time? Are we to focus on mathematics more simply because China and/or India are producing more engineers? Is quantity the issue or quality? And, are those nations producing more because of their quality, or because of their larger populations and more exploitable workforce? There was a time when America took pride in its citizenry and their quality of life, (or we at least professed this). Education rooted firmly materialism cannot thrive. The globalized workforce is a concept embracing the value of production, but ignoring our historical embrace of domestic innovation and citizens’ quality of life.

Standardized test scores may only make sense when attempting to justify funding from an outside source (a legislator) that is not present in the classroom, having no knowledge of a particular locale’s economic engine, and is a stranger to a community’s resources, challenges and cultural makeup. It is a one-size fits all suit, where a tailor made one is obviously best. Just as there may be multiple learning styles, there are multiple assessment tools to demonstrate learning and understanding. In America, we value individuality, individual growth, the uniqueness of community, and the benefits to diversity. Did we sensationalize test standardization to address educational quality, or to justify punishment and prepare for hostile takeover of school districts? This issue is linked to teacher quality. A teacher may only be as good as the resources made available, the support they receive, the development made ready, and the quality of life this professional may enjoy as a result of their commitment.

Lastly, privatization has been the cure all presented to the public at large. However, it subtly eludes the murky question of accountability. There is no guarantee to every citizen in the private domain. The private institution tackles admission as it pleases, administers discipline as it wishes, pays employees however it wants, and the bottom line is its ultimate concern. The private institution runs itself as a monarchy making decisions from the top down, appointing its nobles rather than collectively considering merit, and selling us convenience and speed while ignoring the necessary time to debate, analyze, compromise, and collectively agree. Democratic practices are lost.

These are the values in which we should be proud of and should celebrate: 1) we do not track our students, we facilitate them, 2) we do not compete our students against each other, but rather against their own circumstances, 3) we strive to value ALL of our citizens and their quality of life, 4) we embrace diversity, because we are proudly a diverse nation, and 5) we value our natural environment, our multilingual, multi-racial, multi religious and non-religious differences and recognize that citizenship in our nation requires advanced citizenship. We educate to create societal citizen engineers. America suffers from an education equality problem in distribution, NOT an educational quality problem.

6 Ways to Improve Special Education For All Children With Special Needs!

Are you the parent of a child with autism or another disability that is frustrated by the special education system? More than 6 million students with disabilities receive special education services in federally funded special education programs. This is about 9% of the country’s school age population. This is a lot of children who depend on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), to help them get the services that they need to live a fulfilled life. As any parent of a child with a disability knows much improvement needs to be made to the special education system. This article will discuss 6 ways to improve the special education system.

Needed to improve the special education system:

1. More available parent training and more resources to pay for the training! Parent trainings are available but in most cases do cost, which prevents some parents from attending. Parents must understand their rights under IDEA in order to be effective advocates for their child.

2. More effective enforcement of IDEA, to include the withholding of funds from states and school districts, who are continually non compliant! The enforcement of IDEA basically does not exist. It is the federal governments responsibility to enforce IDEA to the states, and it is the states responsibility to enforce IDEA of local school districts. Neither one does very much in this area. Enforcement without withholding of funds will not work. In my experience it will not take many states losing their IDEA funding, before major positive changes will occur.

3. Improved diagnosis of disabilities and an easier eligibility process! Many children with disabilities throughout the US are told that they do not have a disability, therefore are not eligible for special education services. This reality hurts children with disabilities and may forever ruin their lives! Parents often do not even know that they can disagree with the schools opinion! The eligibility process needs to be made more child friendly!

4. Special education personnel must set realistic high expectations for all children with disabilities! Congress has said from the beginning that school districts expectations of children with disabilities are too low. School personnel and parents must believe that children can be successful in their education and lives, if given an appropriate education, and keep expectations high.

5. Focus on outcomes of special education so that all children will be ready for post school learning and independent living! For the year 2005-2006 55% of children with disabilities graduated from high school, in comparison to a little over 70% of children without disabilities graduated from high school. This will limit the children’s ability to go to college or get a job, which will affect the rest of their lives!

6. Improve the federal funding of IDEA! The current estimates are that the federal government only pays about 17% of per pupil costs for special education. The federal government needs to put their money where there mouth is, and fund IDEA fully!

All parents can be involved in advocating for systemic special education improvements. Notify your state and federal representatives and see how they are willing to get involved, in this process. Children with disabilities deserve to receive an appropriate education and live their lives to the fullest!

Know About Medical Education Conferences

What are Medical Education Conferences?

The medical education conferences are the worldwide friendly union of physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, medical students etc. working in one or the other medical areas and are interested in enhancing outcomes in the healthcare industry. Leaders of the medical education come together to share ideas and experiences to improve educational practices. These meetings are held in a chosen medical field, especially at exotic places to make one relax with their families and friends along with subject enrichment.

Registrations are being made for attending such kind of meets. Abstracts and Presentations submissions are done months before the held date of the specific conference. After the review of the abstracts, they are accepted or rejected and the full schedule is then made keeping in consideration the time of the seminar and question-answer session. The event is spread over two or more weeks depending on the number of abstracts to be discussed.

Why are these conducted?

Variety of sessions and workshops are conducted to enable the diverse group of educators and researchers to share and discuss interesting ongoing approaches, innovations, and interventions to medical education.

It is a platform for people of similar interests.

  • to form a network with others.
  • to take part in workshops and seminars.
  • to present their own work via presentations.

It provides tools for training of health professionals in developing, mastering and maintaining the important knowledge, skills, and attitude required for safe and effective patient care. These conferences help in developing and implementing curriculum, assessment and evaluation competency, simulation and observation studies, and policy or ethical dilemmas in medical training.

Undergraduate/Postgraduate level students get the opportunity to attend expert’s seminars. Plus, they also get a chance to lead a seminar which helps them to strengthen their basic skills and to reinforce a clinical experience with an evidence-based approach, in turn, it creates efficiency and improves compliance with duty hours and patient care.

Upcoming Medical Education Conferences in 2018

Medical schools, universities and many associations routinely offer conferences on medical education; from undergraduate medical education to resident and research education on the vast number of topics.

Have a look at the lists which are given below-

1. 15th APMEC 2018: 10-14 January 2018, Singapore.

2. Pain Management & Addiction Medicine for Primary Care: 16-18 February 2018 in Whistler (Vancouver) in Canada.

3. Cardiology for Primary Care: February 17-19, 2018 in Disneyland, California.

4. Infectious Diseases for Primary Care: 22nd – 24th February 2018 in Riviera Maya/Cancun, Mexico.

5. Clinical and Patient Wellness Program Series: February 22-24, 2018 in Orlando, Florida.

6. Pharmacology and Pain Management for Primary Care: Between 2-4 March 2018, it will be held in Sedona/Grand Canyon, Arizona.

7. Neurology and Psychiatry for Primary Care: In Napa Valley/Sonoma Wine Country, California, 9-11 March 2018.

8. Ottawa 2018.ICME 2018: 10-14 March 2018, Abu Dhabi.

9. Pediatrics for Primary Care: March 16-18, 2018 in Kapolei, Hawaii-Aulani.

10. Women’s Health and Pain Management: 24-26 March 2018 in Montego Bay, Jamaica.

11. Emergencies in Primary care: March 29-31, 2018 in Punta Cana.

12. Psychiatry and Women’s Health for Primary Care: March 29-31, 2018.

13. 13th International Medical Education Conferences 2018: 13-15 April 2018, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

14. AMEE 2018: 25-29 August 2018, Basel, Switzerland.

15. Learn Serve Lead 2018 AAMC: 2-6 November 2018, Austin, USA.

How to Get Financial Aid for College Education for Single Mothers

Single mothers and mothers in the US can provide their family and children with a better future by securing a higher paid job. Well, this is possible only with the right kind of degree in hand earned at colleges. However, the road to success through education is quite tough as the costs associated with the higher studies at colleges are quite high, forcing many single mothers in the US to drop their higher studies in midway. High expenses apart, the additional crises of debt burden are there too, making college education an out of reach substance for single moms and mothers. Yet, there is a hope as the Obama administration has revamped grant programs for women, especially for single mothers or moms. This initiative has been taken towards empowering women and single mothers in the US so as to find them a better opportunity and make their lives better, leaving past the adversities behind.

The Obama Single Mother Grant is one of the best ways to help with college bills to avoid financial crises. Single mothers or mothers from low-income or no-income households can receive up to $5,000 as an educational benefit through The Federal Pell Grant program, also known as the Single Mother Grant. The US Department of Education monitors the entire program and pays out the financial assistance for higher studies for mothers through state-run organizations, participating colleges, action community agencies, charitable organizations and non-profit organizations. Always remember that female participants can easily receive free financial assistance through Obama approved government grant compared to male participants.

Considering Pell Grant, it is a need-based program; hence, it always aims at favoring the needs of single mothers. The federal Pell Grant offers you a great opportunity to escape the higher repayment rates of loans. Besides, it does not have to be repaid like loans. Earlier known as Basic Education Opportunity Grants (BEOGs), Pell Grant offers around $5,500 to the eligible single mothers for college tuition fees, as well as study materials and housing expenses.

How to Apply for the Federal Pell Grant

Remember, you are not entitled to receiving the Pell Grant for more than one college you want to pursue your higher studies. In order to receive the financial assistance, it is essential to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or (FAFSA). A proper application process is not complete without the filing of FAFSA. Once the FAFSA is filed, your financial needs are evaluated based on the information provided on the FAFSA. After the FAFSA gets processed, you are likely to receive a Student Aid Report, containing your eligibility for the Federal Pell Grant.

If you are interested, you can contact your state agency to apply for the Pell Grant or visit https://fafsa.ed.gov/options.htm to apply online. Though it is a time-consuming process, benefits for college education earned through Pell grant is matchless.

The Importance of Dental Continuing Education

The pursuit of lifelong learning-whether to enrich our lives, follow a new dream, or simply challenge ourselves, is certainly something that appeals to many of us. For some professionals, however, ongoing training in their fields of expertise is more important than for others. Individuals working in the medical and dental fields are entrusted with the safety and comfort of others on a daily basis. Should they choose to rely upon their initial training indefinitely, ignoring ongoing developments and technological advances, they would be putting their practices at legal risk and jeopardizing the health and welfare of their patients. In these fields, it’s simply not an option to assume that there is nothing more to learn.

Dental continuing education is essential for anyone working within the dental field. As in the medical field, technological advances in the field come at a rapid-fire pace, and staying abreast of the latest research, tools and treatment methods is crucial. Ongoing training for dental professionals is so important that most states require that dentists and hygienists complete a certain number of dental continuing education activities each year in order to remain licensed to practice. These requirements vary from state to state, and in some cases also apply to dental assistants.

Pursuing continued education in the dental field can be beneficial in several ways. For a dentist who is currently in practice, ongoing continuing education ensures that his or her patients have access to the latest diagnostic, preventative and treatment methods. For an individual just beginning a career in the dental field, dental continuing education can open new career pathways, provide opportunities for advancement and improve earning power.

A wide variety of dental continuing education activities are available for both working and non-working individuals. If your goal is simply to stay informed about new research findings and updated industry best practices, there are plenty of low-cost, self-paced online courses that can help you to meet your state’s continuing education requirements and enhance your ability to perform your current job role. If you are interested in furthering your formal education, however, in order to advance your career in the dental field, you may wish to pursue a degree or certificate program. For example, a dental assistant may discover that she is interested in pursuing a career as a hygienist-whether to earn a higher salary or simply to experience more personal fulfillment in her job role. In this case, she would need a degree from an accredited dental hygiene school in order to obtain her license.

Regardless of the pathway you choose, as a dental professional you should consider your pursuit of education to be a lifelong endeavor. Doing so will not only better position you to advance within your chosen field; it will also ensure that you’re able to provide the best possible care for your patients.

HAITI – Creole, Literacy, and Education

The question as to which language or languages to use in educating the children of Haiti and in adult literacy programs, which are organized by both government and voluntary organizations in Haiti, has generated a lot of debate among educationists and the Haitian public at large. Two languages are spoken in Haiti, Creole and French. Creole is the most universally spoken language in Haiti, accounting for over ninety percent of native monolingual speakers; whereas French language has for the past two centuries enjoyed the pride of place as the country’s sole medium of official government and business transactions as well as the language of education. To understand the position of the various parties to this debate, we have to go back to the evolution of language and education in Haiti since its independence from France on January 1, 1804.

Post Independence Haiti Haiti transformed itself from a slave colony of France to a full fledged self-governing and independent entity through sustained armed struggle and war between the French slave owners and their enslaved African fellow human beings. The revolutionary war was long, bitter, but sustained by the grim determination of the enslaved Africans to break the yoke of French enslavement from their necks or otherwise die in the attempt. When the white French were finally expelled from Haiti, their language remained as the means of official communication in all government and business transactions. The place of preeminence and influence vacated by the departing French was taken over by their mulatto offspring, who then occupied the elite upper class of the emergent Haitian society.

The unique position of the half-French and half-African mulattoes, as heirs to their departing French fathers, gave them the economic and political clout to call the shots in all aspects of Haitian public and educational life. This they did by entrenching the continued use of the French language in all official government business, as well as making French the only language of educational instruction. The vast majority of Haitians could neither speak nor write in French. This majority was consisted mostly of the Afro-Haitians, who were uneducated, and thus could not in any way contributed to the national discourse; whereas they constituted over ninety percent of the total Haitian population. The Afro-Haitians spoke only Creole, which until recently, was not recognized as an official language in Haiti.

Modern Haiti The situation of things continued like this for over a hundred years. The little progress made by a rather small number of Afro-Haitians who became educated did not have any effect on the dominant status and position of French language in Haitian national affairs. Instead, by what would amount to a rather ironic twist of events, these Afro-Haitians having moved up from their lowly status in the rural peasantry, through urban low class, to the urban middle class, were more interested in entrenching their positions, rather changing things for better for their fellow marginalized brothers and sisters in the lower classes of Haitian society.

These middle class Afro-Haitians behaved like typical status seeking social climbers, who believed that the French language was their passport to further their upward movement in Haitian society. Hence they teamed up with Haitian mulattoes in the elite upper class to frustrate any attempt at changing the status quo. To complicate issues further for the promotion of Creole into a national language, and a medium of instruction in schools, some members of the peasant class felt that it was better for their children to be taught in French, so that they could escape the poverty trap of Haitian rural peasantry. Even those past Haitian governments that claimed to represent the interests of the masses have hesitated to give Creole and French equal legal status, in order not to step on powerful toes of elite mulattoes in the upper class.

Creole language thus remained an informal medium of communication for over a hundred and seventy years. It was only in the late 1970s that the government gave approval for the use of Creole in education. Implementation of government approval was not wholeheartedly carried out. As late as the 1980s, there was still some doubt about whether Creole should be used in primary schools. In 1987, a major break through came with the inclusion of Creole in the Haitian National Constitution, as a co-national language of Haiti along with French. The door was now open for integration of the more popular Creole language into the school educational system.

However, a lot still needs to be done by both government and non-governmental organizations to really take Creole language into its rightful place as the authentic national language of Haiti. As a first and urgent step, the standardization of Creole orthography should be pursued with vigor by linguists in academia and all those interested in its progress, beyond a mere glorified appendage to French. The National Pedagogic Institute (Institut Pédagogique Nacional–IPN) has taken the initiative by developing an orthography of Creole language that includes elements of the two systems previously in use. In the areas of popular literature, books and magazines need to be produced in Creole at a faster rate than is available at the moment. The print and electronic media have taken tentative steps to popularize Creole literature, but much more needs to be done.

The government of Haiti needs to take the implementation of the relevant portions of the 1987 Haitian National Constitution more seriously. All aspects of the national life of Haiti need to feel the presence of Creole language, as a medium of official transactions. Much work needs to be done urgently in curriculum development at all levels of Haiti’s education, using Creole as a medium of such development. Similarly, adult literacy programs should be established to upgrade the literacy level of Haitian rural peasant and urban lower classes. It is noteworthy that some church groups have taken the bull by the horn, by publishing some religious literature in Creole language. The popular monthly Bon Nouvel, published by a Roman Catholic group, is one such publication. The New Testament half of The Holy Bible has also been published in Creole through the efforts a group of Protestant churches.